Managers perform various functions, but one of the most important and least understood aspects of their job is proper utilization of people. Research reveals that workers performance is closely related to motivation; thus keeping employees motivated is an essential component of good management. In a business context, motivation refers to the stimulus that directs the behavior of workers toward the company goals. In ord'er to motivate workers to achieve company goals, managers must be aware of their needs.
Many managers believe workers will be motivated to achieve organizational goals by satisfying their fundamental needs for rnaterial survival. These needs include a good salary, safe working conditions, and job security. While absence of these factors results in poor morale and dissatisfaction, studies have shown that their presence results only in maintenance of existing attitudes and work performance. Although important, salary, working conditions, and job security do not provide the primary motivation for many workers in highly industrialized societies, especially at the professional or technical levels.
Increased motivation is more likely to occur when work meets the needs of individuals for learning, self-realization, and personal growth. By responding to personal needs - the desire for responsibility, recognition, growth, promotion, and more interesting work - managers have altered conditions in the workplace and, consequently, many employees are motivated to perform more effectively.
In an attempt to appeal to both the fundamental and personal needs of workers, innovative management approaches, such as job enrichment and job enlargement, have been adopted in many organizations. Job enrichment gives workers more authority in making decisions related to planning and doing their work. A worker might assume responsibility for scheduling work-flow, checking quality of work produced, or making sure deadlines are met. Job enlargement increases the number of tasks workers perform by allowing them to rotate positions or by giving them responsibility for doing several jobs. Rather than assembling just one component of an automobile, factory workers might be grouped together and given responsibility for assembling the entire fuel system.
By improving the quality of work life through satisfaction of fundamental and personal employee needs, managers attempt to direct the behavior of workers toward the company goals. (Taken from Business Concepts foi English Practice by Barbara Tolley Dowling and Marianne McDougal).
Daftar Pustaka : Suyudi, Ichwan dan Sri Widiati. 1995. Bahasa Inggris 2. Jakarta : Gunadarma