Kamis, 29 April 2010

Example Complaint Letter

Jl. Mawar No.99

18th April 2010

Jl. Kalimantan 123

Dear Sirs,

We regret to have to cormplain about late delivery of the
filing cabinets ordered on 2nd April 2010 We did not receive
them until this morning though you had guaranteed delivery within
a week. It was on this undirstanding that we placed the other.
unfortunately, there have been similar delays on several previous
occasions and their increasing frequency in recent months compels
us to say that business between us cannot be continued in
conditions such as these.
We have felt it is necessary to make our feelings khown
Since we cannot give reliable delivery dates to our customers
unless we count on undertaking given by our suppliers We hope
you will understand how we are placed that from now on we can
rely upon punctual completion of our orders.

Yours faithfully,

Jumat, 23 April 2010

Import And Export

International trade happens because some countries have a comparative advantage in producing goods rather than taving an absolute advantage; which means it is easier for certain countries to produce goods than others.
The reasons for this cornpafative advantage may be because of climate; natural resources such as coal, wood, or minerals; history and development, or the political situation of the world.
Most countries can produce any product, even artificially, if they are williang to invest sufficient capital. Artificial climates are created in greenhousest o grow tropical plants. The UK became a sugar producer at one period, because war prevented supplies getting through.Narway has been an oil producer since oil prices and political pressures forced them to invest the capital for North Sea production' And Japan, with few natural resources has become a major industrial nation by specialising in developing ist technology. But only Russia and America could be really self-sufficient if they had to be, producing their basic needs without importing; so most countries have to export to pay for the imports they need. In doing this, they are concerned with two main problems, their balanco of trade and balance of payments.
The balance of trade between coutries is the difference between the amount of visible goods they import and export. Visible goods are those you can see and touch, for example manufactures, steel, and food produce. An adverse balance of trade means the country is importing too many visibles and not exporting enough, and many underdeveloped countries find themselves in this position, importing expensive technical equipment, which they need to develop their industries, and exporting basic food produce under terms of trade which are a disadvantage to them. In other words if one hundred tons of rice is the cost of one tractor, many underdeveloped countries find themselves paying two hundred tons of fice for the same tractor, as they have no power to control the terms of trade for their produce. Some developed countries also face this problem. In 1981 America warned Japan that unless she reduced her technical exports to the USA, America would prevent Japanese products from coming into the USA.
The balance of payments is the difference between the products (Visibles) and services (invisibles, such as banking, insurance, and shipping) a country imports and exports, and also includes the money produce all it needs in raw materials and food, its visible balance of trade is always adverse. But it has developed invisible exports over the centuries, in lanking, shipping, and insurance services, and these invisibles help reduce its balance of payments deficit, and sometimes even put it in surplus. Since the late 1970s oil production has helped further to reduced the UK's balance of payments problems which had been increasing since the1950s. In 1974, for example, the UK's balance of payments deficit was so serious that it needed help from the International Monetary Fund. (Taken from Basic Commercial English by A. Ashley).

Daftar Pustaka : Suyudi, Ichwan dan Sri Widiati. 1995. Bahasa Inggris 2. Jakarta : Gunadarma.

Modern Banking

The goldsmith bankers were an early exarnple of financial inter mediarv.

A financial intermediary is an institution that specializes in bringing lenders and borrowers together.

A commeicial bank borrows money from the public, crediting them with a deposit. The deposit is a liability of the bank. It is money owed to depositors. In turn the bank lends money to firms, households, or governments woshing to borrow. Banks are not the only financial intermediaries. Insurance companies, pension funds, and building secieties also take in money in order to relend it. The crucial feature of banks is the some of their liabilities are used as a means of payment, and are therefore part of the money stock.

Commercial bank are financial intermediaries with a goverment licence to make loans and issue deposits, including deposits against which cheques can be written.

We begin by looking at the present-day UK banking system. Although the details vary from country to country, the general principle is much the same everywhere. In the UK, the commercial banking system comprises about 600 registered banks, the National Girobank operating through post offices, and about a dozen trustee savings banks. Much the most important single group is the London clearing banks. The clearing banks are so named because they have a central clearing house for handling payments by cheque.

A clearing system is a set of arrangements is which debts between banks are settled by adding up all the transactions in a given period and paying only the net amount needed to balance inter-bank accounts.

Suppose you bank with Barelays but visit a supermarket that banks with Lloyds. To pay for your shopping you.write a cheque against your deposit at Barclays. The supermarket pays this cheque into its account at Lloyds. In turn, Lloyds presents the cheque to Barclays which will credit Lloyds' account at Barclays.and debit your account at Barclays by an equivalelrt amount. Because you purchased goods from a supermarket using a different bank, a transfer of funds between the two banks is required. Crediting or debiting one bank's account at another bank is the simplest way to achieve this.
However on the same day someone else, call her Joan Groover, is probably writing a cheque on Lloyd's deposit account to pay for some stereo equepment from a shop banking with Barcalays. The stereo shop pays the cheque into its Barclays' account, increasing its deposit. Barclays then pay the cheque into its account at Lloyds where Ms Groover's account is simultaneously debited. Now The transfer flows from Lloyds to Barclays.
Altough in both cases the cheque writer's account is debited and the cheque recipient's account is credited, it does not make sense for the two banks to make two separate inter-bank transactions between themselves. The clearing system calculates the net flows between the member clearing banks and these are the settlements that they make between themselves. Thus the system of clearing cheques represents another way society reduces the costs of making transactions. (Taken from Economics: English for Academic Purposes Series by C. St. J. Yates).

Daftar Pustaka : Suyudi, Ichwan dan Sri Widiati. 1995. Bahasa Inggris 2. Jakarta : Gunadarma.

Money And Its Functions

Money, the medium of exchange, is used in one half of almost all exchange. Workers exchange labour services for money. We accept money not to consume it directly but because it directly but because it can subsequently be used to buy things we do wish to consume. Money is the medium throungh which. people exchange goods and services. To see that society benefits from a medium of exchange, imagine a barter economy.

A barter has no medium of exchange. Goods are traded directly oor swapped for other goods.

In a barter economy, the seller and the buyer each must want something the other has to offer. Each person is simultaneously a seller and a buyer. In order to see a film, you must hand oveer in exchange a good or service that the cinema maneger wants. There has to be a double coincidence of wants. You have to find a cinema where the manager wants what you have to offer in exchange.
Trading is a very expensive in a barter economy. People must spend a lot of time and effort finding others with whom they can make mutually satisfactory swaps. Since time and effort are scarce resources, a barter economy is wasteful. The use of money - any commodity generally accepted in payment for goods, services, and debts – makes the trading process simlper and more efficient.

The unit of account is the unit in which prices are quoted and accounts are kept.

In Britain, prices are quoted in pound sterling; in France, in French francs. It is usually convenient to use the units in which the medium of exchange is measured as the unit of account as well. However there are exceptions. During the rapid German inflations of 1922-23 when prices in marks were changing very quickly, German shopkeepers found it more convenient to use dollars as the unit of account. Prices were quoted in dollars even though payment was made in marks, the German medium of exchange.

Money is a store of value because it can be used to make purchase in the furure.

To be accepted in exchange, money has to be a store of value. Nobody would accept money as payment for goods supplied today if the money was. going to be worthless when they tried to buy goods with it tomorrow. But money is neither the only necessarily the best store of value. Houses, stamp collections, and interst bearing. Bank ' accounts all serve as stores of value. Since money pays no interest and its real purchasing power is eroded by inflation, there are almost certainly better way to store value.
Finally, money serves as a standard of deferred payment or a unit of account over time. When you borrow, the amount to be repaid next year is measured in pound sterling. Although convenient, this is not essential function of money. UK citizens can get bank loans specifying in dollars the amount that must be repaid next year. Thus the key feature of meney is its use as a medium of exchange. For this, it must act as a store of value as well. And it is usually, though not invariably, convenient to make money the unit of account and standard of deferred payment as well. (Taken from Economics : English for Academic Purposes Series by C. St. J. Yates)
Daftar Pustaka : Suyudi, Ichwan dan Sri Widiati. 1995. Bahasa Inggris 2. Jakarta : Gunadarma.


The terms market and marketing can have several meanings depending upon they are used. The term stock market refers to the buying and selling of shares in corporations as well as other activities related to stock trading and pricing. The important world stock markets are in London, Geneva, New York, Tokyo, and Singapore. Another type of market is a grocery market, *hich is a place where people purchase food. when economists use the word market they mean a set of forces on conditions that determine the price of product, such as the supply available for sale and the demand for it by consumers. The term marketing in business includes all of these meanings, and more.
In the past, the concept of marketing emphasized sales. The producer or manufacturer made a product he wanted to sell. Marketing was the task of figuring out how to sell the product. Basically, selling would be accomplished by sales promotion, which included advertising and personal selling. In addition to sales promotion, marketing also involved the physical distribution of the product to the places where it was actually sold. Distribution consisted of transportation, storage, and related services such as financing, standardization and grading, and the related risks.
The modern marketing concept encompasses all of the activities mentioned, but it is based on different set of principles. It subscribes to the notion that production can be econornically justified only by consumption. In other words, goods should be produced only if they can be sold. Therefore, the producer should consider who is going to buy the product-or what the market for the product is-before production begins. This is very different from making a product and then thinking about how to sell it.
Marketing now involves first deciding what costumers wants, and designing and producing a product that satisfies these wants at a profit to the company. Instead of concentrating solely on production, the company must consider the desires of the consumer, and this is much more difficult since it involves human behavior. Production. on the other hand, is mostly an engineering problem. Thus, demand and market forces are still an important aspect of modern marketing, but they are considered prior to the production process.
Because products are often marketed internationally, distribution has increased in importance. Goods must be at the place where the customer needs them or brought there. This is known as place utility; it adds value to a product. However , many markets are separated from the place of production, which means that often both raw materials and finished products must be transported to the points where they are needed.
Raw materials requiring linle or no special treatment can be transported by rail, ship, or barge at low cost. Large quantities of raw materials travel as bulk freight, but finished products that often require special treatment, such as refrigeration or careful handling, are usually transported by truck. This merchandise freight is usually smaller in volume and requires quicker delivery. Merchandise freight is a term for the transportation of manufactured goods.
Along all points of the distribution channel various amounts of storage are required. The time and manner of such storage depends upon the type of product. Inventories of this stored merchandise often need to be financed.
Modern marketing is therefore a coordinated system of many business activities, but basically it involves four things: (1) selling the correct product at the proper place, (2) selling it at a price determined by demand, (3) satisfying a customer's need and wants, and (4) producing a profit for the company. (Taken from You're in Business : Building Business English Skills by John French).

Daftar Pustaka : Suyudi, Ichwan dan Sri Widiati. 1995. Bahasa Inggris 2. Jakarta : Gunadarma.

Steps In The Decisions Process

One of the most important tasks a manager perform is decisionmaking. This may be defined as the process of choosing a course of action (when alternatives are available) to solve a particular problem.
The first step, defining the problem, is perhaps the most difficult step. It involves careful analysis of a situation in order to state the problem and determine its cause. For example, a factory may be experiencing low production (the problem) because the supervisor has failed to schedule the work shifts in the most efficient manner (the cause).
Defining the expectation in Step 2 involves stating the result that is expected once the problem has been solved. The expected result after solving the problem of low production described above would be to increase the output of the factory.
Next, data are gathered about the problem. This information can be obtained from a variety of sources: observations, surveys, or published research. Many businesses rely on computers to process, summarize, and report data. Having sufficient data that are valid and reliable is necessary for Step 4.
Here the decision-maker develops feasible alternatives, or potential solutions to the problem. Using the low production example, some alternatives might include: (l) replacing the current supervisor; (2) providing the current supervisor with the necessary information and training to schedule the work shifts more efficiently; and (3) creating incentives for workers, such as higher pay or time off, in order to increase production.
In the fifth step, the decision-maker evaluates these alternatives in terms of the expected result of the solution (which is to increase production) and limitations, such as time and money. Alternative 1, replacing the current supervisor, does not guarantee increased production, and it would involve training a new supervisor. Alternatives 2, providing additional training for the current supervisor, would be time consuming and somewhat expensive but should bring about increased production. Alternative 3, creating worker incentives, may bring about increased production but would be quite expensive.
Finally, the decision-maker compares the alternatives and chooses the one that has the best potential for providing the desired results. In the low production example, the decision-maker decides to try providing the current supervisor with additional training because this alternative should achieve the objective with the lowest expenditure of time and money.
The decision-making process is followed by: (1) implementation of the chosen alternative (putting it into action) and (2) evaluation of that alternative. If the alternative achieves the desired result. it is then known as the solution. (Taken from Business Concepts for English Practice by Barbara Tolley Dowling and Marianne McDougal).

Daftar Pustaka : Suyudi, Ichwan dan Sri Widiati. 1995. Bahasa Inggris 2. Jakarta : Gunadarma.

Management And Human Resources Development

Managers perform various functions, but one of the most important and least understood aspects of their job is proper utilization of people. Research reveals that workers performance is closely related to motivation; thus keeping employees motivated is an essential component of good management. In a business context, motivation refers to the stimulus that directs the behavior of workers toward the company goals. In ord'er to motivate workers to achieve company goals, managers must be aware of their needs.
Many managers believe workers will be motivated to achieve organizational goals by satisfying their fundamental needs for rnaterial survival. These needs include a good salary, safe working conditions, and job security. While absence of these factors results in poor morale and dissatisfaction, studies have shown that their presence results only in maintenance of existing attitudes and work performance. Although important, salary, working conditions, and job security do not provide the primary motivation for many workers in highly industrialized societies, especially at the professional or technical levels.
Increased motivation is more likely to occur when work meets the needs of individuals for learning, self-realization, and personal growth. By responding to personal needs - the desire for responsibility, recognition, growth, promotion, and more interesting work - managers have altered conditions in the workplace and, consequently, many employees are motivated to perform more effectively.
In an attempt to appeal to both the fundamental and personal needs of workers, innovative management approaches, such as job enrichment and job enlargement, have been adopted in many organizations. Job enrichment gives workers more authority in making decisions related to planning and doing their work. A worker might assume responsibility for scheduling work-flow, checking quality of work produced, or making sure deadlines are met. Job enlargement increases the number of tasks workers perform by allowing them to rotate positions or by giving them responsibility for doing several jobs. Rather than assembling just one component of an automobile, factory workers might be grouped together and given responsibility for assembling the entire fuel system.
By improving the quality of work life through satisfaction of fundamental and personal employee needs, managers attempt to direct the behavior of workers toward the company goals. (Taken from Business Concepts foi English Practice by Barbara Tolley Dowling and Marianne McDougal).

Daftar Pustaka : Suyudi, Ichwan dan Sri Widiati. 1995. Bahasa Inggris 2. Jakarta : Gunadarma

Management Functions

Management plays a vital role in any business or organized activity. Management is composed of a team of managers who have charge of the organization at all levels. Their duties include making sure company objectives are met and seeing that the business operates efficiently. Regardless of the specific job, most managers perform four basic functions, These management functions are planning, organizing, direc.ting, and controlling.
Planning involves determining overall company objectives and deciding how these goals can best be achieved. Managers evaluate alternative plans before choosing a specific course of action and then check to see that the chosen plan fits into the objectives established at higher organizational levels. Planning is listed as the first management function because the others depend on it. However, even as managers move on to perform other managerial functions, planning continues as goals and alternatives are further evaluated and revised.
Organizing, the second management function, is the process of puffing the plan into action. This involves allocating resources, especially human resources, so that the overall objectives can be attained. In this phase managers decide on the positions to be created and determine the associated duties and responsibilities. Staffing, choosing the right person for the right job, may also be included as part of the organizing function.
Third is the day-to-day direction and supervision of employees. In directing, managers guide, teach, and motivate workers so that they reach their potential abilities and at the same time achieve the company goals that were established in the planning process. Effective direction, or supervision, by managers requires ongoing communication with employees.
In the last management function, controlling, managers evaluate how well company objectives are being met. In order to ciholete this evaluation, managers must look at the objectives established in the planning phase and at how well the tasks assigned in the directing phase are being completed. If major problems exist and goals are not being achieved, then changes need to be made in the company's organizational or managerial structure. In making changes, managers might have to go back and replan, reorganize, and redirect.
In order to adequately and efficiently perform these management functions, managers need interpersonal, organizational, and technical, skills. Although all four functions are managerial duties, the importance of each may vary depending on the situation. Effective managers meet the objectives of the company through a successful combination of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling. (Taken from Business Concepts for English Practice by Barbara Tolley Dowling and Marianne McDougal).

Daftar Pustaka : Suyudi, Ichwan dan Sri Widiati. 1995. Bahasa Inggris 2. Jakarta : Gunadarma

Selasa, 06 April 2010

China State Media Accuses Google of Political Agenda

China State Media Accuses Google of Political Agenda

BEIJING (Reuters) - China’s state media on Sunday accused Google of pushing a political agenda by “groundlessly accusing the Chinese government” of supporting hacker attacks and by trying to export its own culture, values and ideas.
In a commentary signed by three Xinhua writers, the state news agency also sought to defend the government’s Internet censorship, which Google has cited as one reason the world’s largest search engine may quit China.
“Regrettably, Google’s recent behaviors show that the company not just aims at expanding business in China, but is playing an active role in exporting culture, value and ideas.
“It is unfair for Google to impose its own value and yardsticks on Internet regulation to China, which has its own time-honored tradition, culture and value.”
On Friday, the China Business News reported that Google may make an announcement as early as Monday on whether it will pull out of China.
Two months ago, Google said it had been the target of sophisticated hacking attacks originating from inside China, and the company said it would no longer agree to abide by Beijing’s censorship rules even if that meant shutting down its Google.cn site.
Since then, the two sides have reportedly been at a standoff, although Google’s chief executive, Eric Schmidt, said he hoped to have an outcome soon from talks with Chinese officials.
China requires Internet operators to block words and images the ruling Communist Party deems unacceptable, including those involving politically sensitive topics.
Beijing has also entirely blocked internationally popular websites Facebook, Twitter and YouTube.
In the Xinhua commentary, the writers accused Google of violating international norms.
“In fact, no country allows unrestricted flow on the Internet of pornographic, violent, gambling or superstitious content, or content on government subversion, ethnic separatism, religious extremism, racialism, terrorism and anti-foreign feelings,” the commentary stated.
As in other disputes with foreign businesses and governments, the commentary said China’s stance in this case was a “pure internal affair.”
The writers said China’s Internet development would prosper without Google, while the company would be the “biggest loser.”
“Whether it leaves or not, the Chinese government will keep its Internet regulation principles unchanged. One company’s ambition to change China’s Internet rules and legal system will only prove to be ridiculous.
“And whether leaving or not, Google should not continue to politicalize itself, as linking its withdrawal to political issues will lose Google’s credibility among Chinese netizens.”
Although it is the global leader, Google operates at a distant second place to Baidu Inc, China’s domestic search engine leader, which has benefitted from the dispute.
Baidu’s shares have surged more than 44 percent since Google’s announcement that it could pull out of China, while Google’s stock has fallen roughly 6.3 percent.
(Reporting by Ken Wills; Editing by Jeremy Laurence)

congratulations letter for job promotion

congratulations letter for job promotion

dear sandra,

Congratulations on your recent promotion to a position of marketing manager

I know how you have worked hard to earn recognition and awards from the company where you work. currently proven you get the results you want for this.
I feel that they have been very wise in the choice to you to occupy that position.

I congratulate you run a new position, hopefully you're more successful future. May God always gives His blessing in your life
I hope the increase in this position does not make you a proud and forget our friendship.

Signed your best friend